2004, 43, 3, 297-319




Małgorzata Waleron, Krzysztof Waleron
Ewa Łojkowska


1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Charakterystyka bakterii z rodzaju Erwinia. 3. Wykrywanie, identyfikacja i różnicowanie bakterii z rodzaju Erwinia. 3.1. Testy biochemiczno-fizjologiczne 3.2. Testy serologiczne. 3.3. Analiza kwasów tłuszczowych. 3.4. Analiza restrykcyjna chromosomalnego DNA. 3.5. Hybrydyzacja kwasów nukleinowych. 3.6. Reakcja łańcuchowa polimerazy (PCR) i jej modyfikacje. 3.7. Reakcja łańuchowa ligazy (LCR). 3.8. Sekwencjonowanie DNA. 4. Taksonomia bakterii z rodzaju Erwinia. 5. Podsumowanie


Characteristcs, identification, differentiation and taxonomy of plant pathogenic bacteria from the genus Erwinia


Abstract:            The genus Erwinia, which was proposed in 1917, consists of several species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming, peritrichous, fermentative rod-shaped bacteria and belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This genus was proposed for plant-associated bacteria that are pathogens, saprophytes and epiphytes. The majority of species of the genus Erwinia are identified by biochemical features. Only for species like Erwinia amylovora, E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, E. chrysanthemi and E. stewarda causing the highest losses of fruit or vegetables the serological and molecular tools for detection, identification and differentiation were developed.
Although taxonomic structure of the genus Erwinia has been proven using both phenotypic and genotypic data, the taxonomic position of this genus is discussed. The difficulties are based mainly on the heterogeneity of the genus Erwinia and the unclear relationships among its members and with other taxa of the Enterobacteriaceae.
Several independent intensive studies of 16S rDNA sequences aimed to resolve the taxonomic relationships of different species and groups of the Erwinia genus and their position within the Enterobacteriaceae, but they gave incoherent results. Some authors proposed that the genus Erwinia should be divided into four new genera, namely Erwinia, Pectobacterium, Pantoea, and Brenneria, while others suggested that the genera Pectobacterium and Brenneria should be grouped together. Also the phylogenetic position of phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae is problematic. The results of some authors indicated that species belonging into former Erwinia genus form one group well separated from other genera from Enterobacteriaceae family. The other scientists obtained different results indicating that among the genera from former Erwinia genus, there are also other genera from Enterobacteriaceae family.


1. Introduction. 2. Characteristic of Erwinia genus. 3. Detection, identification and differentiation of bacteria from Erwinia genus. 3.1. Biochemical and physiological tests. 3.2. Serological tests. 3.3. Analysis of free fatty acids composition. 3.4. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of chromosomal DNA. 3.5. Nucleic acids hybridisation. 3.6. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based DNA fingerprinting. 3.7. Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR). 3.8. DNA sequencing. 4. Taxonomy of the Erwinia genus. 5. Summary


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